Climate means a general weather condition of a place over many years of time. More candidly, it consists of seasons like winter, summer, spring, and autumn. But when there is a change in these conditions is called climate change. The weather conditions become drier warmer, or wetter. Nature is becoming hostile due to human activities. A lot of people die due to bad weather conditions, especially in coastal areas. There are many reasons behind it and human beings are on top of the list. Many countries in the world are ignoring the phenomena of climate change. But this a reality and knocking our doors. Either we should stop it now or face its consequences. The following are some of the effects of climate change along with its causes and ways to stop.
Causes of Climate Change
1. Differences in Solar Radiation
Solar radiation is not the same every time. There are variations in it. This happens due to sunspots on the surface of the sun. If they are many in number, then more solar radiation. As a result, the earth receives more energy. Thus, more sunspots make the global climate warmer. On the other hand, fewer sunspots may lead to a cooler global climate.
2. Volcanic Eruptions
Another natural reason for climate change is volcanoes. There are many active and dormant volcanoes throughout the world. Active volcanoes erupt and release smoke, dust, volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide. They may carry salt crystals, bacteria, dust, soot, and viruses. In addition to it, volcanic activities can block the percentage of the sun’s radiation and causes a cooler climate.
3. Movement of Tectonic Plates
Crustal plates move slowly and cannot see immediately. Their movement changes landmass on the surface. It leads to a change in the direction of air and ocean water. The northern hemisphere has more land-mass than the southern hemisphere. The landmass warms faster than oceans due to heat-absorbing capacity. Therefore, the northern hemisphere is warmer than the southern one. Ultimately, it affects the climate of all continents.
4. Human Beings (Greenhouse Gases)
Humans, a big contributor to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If greenhouse gases remain in balance, they are good for a conducive environment. But the situation is different and worse now. The amount of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxides gases is over the limits. The main role player is carbon dioxide (CO2) since the time of the Industrial Revolution. Motor Vehicles also adding a big amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
Effects of Climate Change
1. Extreme Weather Conditions
Due to climate change, weather conditions have become irregular. We can see this imbalance in all seasons of the year. Summer is hotter and winters colder. Some places receive heavy rain and others become dry. The change is affecting all the patterns of humans’ life. Floods are destroying the life of coastal inhabitants and contaminating drinking water.
2. Dry and Dirty Air
Due to excessive emission of CO2 in the air, the earth’s temperature has risen. There are smoke, soot and other pollutants in the air and difficult to breather. Life is becoming riskier for people with asthma due to air pollution.
3. Health Problems
As the weather conditions are changing, so many diseases already born. They are resistant in nature. Due to the rise of temperature, many people are dying by heatstroke, heat stress, kidney disease, and cardiovascular problems. Many people are facing allergies and skin diseases.
4. Ice Melting and Sea Rising
Melting of polar ice is threatening the life of low-lying areas and coastal ecosystems. Island nations are more prone to it. In recent decades, cities like Mumbai, Sydney, Miami, New York, Jakarta, Dhaka, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Manila, Melbourne, New Orleans, Rotterdam, Venice, and Tokyo are facing floods.
5. Ocean Ecosystem at Risk
Due to human activities and water contamination, there is acidification. It is a threat to underwater ecosystems. Marine lives are at risk. Climate change is affecting the entire food-chain system on the planet. The biggest coral-reef in Australia is a victim of global warming and climate change.
Climate Change Solutions
Although we have already global boards to discuss the environmental issues, yet the work is very slow. Some of the developed countries are ignoring the value of the Paris Agreement. To face the problem of climate change is a collective effort of all countries. There should be a clean source of energy and adopt less-emission technologies.
1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC)
2. United Nations Climate Change Conference
Above all, human beings can do anything if they want to. Because anything is possible in the world. Furthermore, we have already international bodies to handle global warming and climate change. The time needs one thing that is ‘to stand together and go ahead’. Think for a while about the efforts of a young environmental activist, Greta Thunberg. If we cannot lead, at least we should support her for making people aware of the effects of climate change.